- What effect does rising income inequality have on longevity in advanced developed economies? This paper focuses on the effect of income inequality on mortality rates for men and women in a subset of OECD countries over nearly six decades from 1950–2008. Using adult mortality rates at aged sixty-five as the outcome measure of mortality, the latest available data on inverted Pareto-Lorenz coefficient as a measure of income inequality, the authors conduct a range of analysis to investigate the relationship. The findings show that income inequality has a negative effect on mortality rates for both men and women, that is, an increase in income inequality at the top of the distribution does not appear to have a detrimental effect on adult mortality rates in the population of advanced developed countries. For every one unit increase in income inequality, female mortality rates decreased by 0.024 percentage points (p≤0.001) and male mortality rates decreased by 0.052 percentage points (p≤0.001). Dynamic OLS results show that for every one unit increase in income inequality, female mortality rates decreased by 0.032 percentage points (p≤0.01) and male mortality rates decreased by 0.067 percentage points (p≤0.001). The findings remain robust to changes in methodology and the inclusion of control variables including GDP, population and the health capital index.
- Parametric regression models are often not flexible enough to capture the true relationships as they tend to rely on arbitrary identification assumptions. Using the UK Labor Force Survey, the authors estimate the causal effect of national minimum wage (NMW) increases on the probability of job entry and job exit by means of a non-parametric Bayesian modelling approach known as Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART). The application of this methodology has the important advantage that it does not require ad-hoc assumptions about model fitting, number of covariates and how they interact. They find that the NMW exerts a positive and significant impact on both the probability of job entry and job exit. Although the magnitude of the effect on job entry is higher, the overall effect of NMW is ambiguous as there are many more employed workers. The causal effect of NMW is higher for young workers and in periods of high unemployment and they have a stronger impact on job entry decisions. No significant interactions were found with gender and qualifications.
- Parliament is the place where politicians make laws to set the policy direction of countries. Non-involvement of different voices such as gender, race and ethnicity in policy decisions may create an inequality in policy-making. Regarding gender, previous literature suggests that women and men may have different policy prefer- ences and women give more priority to policies related to their traditional roles as care givers to children in the family. Public spending on family allowances is one of the economic policies that plays an important role in helping families for childcare. This paper contributes to the literature by analyzing the relationship between female political representation and public spending on family allowances within a perspective of critical-mass framework.
Jai hind..!! Good day.... The people of the world faced many difficult times . Today we need to improve the democracy in political level & also need the SOCIAL SECURITY SERVICE SYSTEM to unite people in social level to distribute the social services available in the world society to bring the socialist benefits to common people. To do the all good things people need to know about the correct way of democratic functioning & their duties in the social as well as in the political level...if they want to bring peace, prosperity & development in the society & remove the hunger, poverty, crime, corruption & crisis world society is in. The democracy has given common people two vital right through that they can fulfill their dream of RAMRAJ. The democratic first right to people is THE REPRESENTATIVE RIGHT......many of us not heard of it...nor any political person or group made aware to people that this is your first right. The second one widely known to people is VOTING RIGHT...The political parties are no role to play in the formation of various political institutions but the present democracy they are doing it without any kind of questioning put against. The capitalist democracy has all the demerits which deter the democracy work for people in full capacity. The political parties are sitting out side of the democracy & the constitution to distribute the vital POLITICAL RIGHT OF REPRESENTATIVE to wealthy classes of the society. The costly elections, propaganda confuse the people & they stand behind the various political parties of their choice with their votes.
What the people need today is to use their first democratic right...THE REPRESENTATIVE...directly through the constitutional provision of the PEOPLE'S COMMISSION...this act should be inducted in the world constitutions so that the people's commission could able to provide the REPRESENTATIVE RIGHT TO common people..& with the PEOPLE'S CARD ELECTING PROCESS respected candidates could enter the various levels of selected political institutions...to represent the people.